Kirschner, P. A., Sweller, J., & Clark, R. E. (2006). Why minimal guidance during instruction does not work: An analysis of the failure of constructivist, discovery, problem-based, experiential, and inquiry-based teaching. Educational psychologist, 41(2), 75-86.

Problem Solving in the 1980s

National Council of Teachers of Mathematics. (1980). An Agenda for Action: Recommendations for school mathematics of the 1980s. Reston, VA: Author

Schoenfeld, A. H. (1992). Learning to think mathematically: Problem solving, metacognition, and sense making in mathematics. Handbook of research on mathematics teaching and learning, 334-370.

Schoenfeld, A. H. (2004). The math wars. Educational policy, 18(1), 253-286.

Sweller, J. (2016). Story of a Research Program. Education Review//Reseñas Educativas, 23.

Sweller’s Research Journey – In Chronological Order

Sweller, J., Mawer, R. F., & Howe, W. (1982). Consequences of history-cued and means-end strategies in problem solving. The American Journal of Psychology, 455-483.

Sweller, J., & Levine, M. (1982). Effects of goal specificity on means–ends analysis and learning. Journal of experimental psychology: Learning, memory, and cognition, 8(5), 463.

Sweller, J., Mawer, R. F., & Ward, M. R. (1983). Development of expertise in mathematical problem solving. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 112(4), 639.

Sweller, J., & Cooper, G. A. (1985). The use of worked examples as a substitute for problem solving in learning algebra. Cognition and Instruction,2(1), 59-89.

Owen, E., & Sweller, J. (1985). What do students learn while solving mathematics problems?. Journal of Educational Psychology, 77(3), 272.

Cooper, G., & Sweller, J. (1987). Effects of schema acquisition and rule automation on mathematical problem-solving transfer. Journal of educational psychology, 79(4), 347

Sweller, J. (1988). Cognitive load during problem solving: Effects on learning.Cognitive science, 12(2), 257-285.

Owen, E., & Sweller, J. (1989). Should problem solving be used as a learning device in mathematics?. Journal for Research in Mathematics Education, 20(3), 322-328.

Goldman, S. R. (1991). On the derivation of instructional applications from cognitive theories: Commentary on Chandler and Sweller. Cognition and Instruction, 8(4), 333-342.

Sweller, J., & Chandler, P. (1991). Evidence for cognitive load theory.Cognition and instruction, 8(4), 351-362.

van Merriënboer and Complex Learning

Van Merriënboer, J. J. (1990). Strategies for programming instruction in high school: Program completion vs. program generation. Journal of educational computing research, 6(3), 265-285.

Van Merriënboer, J. J., Kirschner, P. A., & Kester, L. (2003). Taking the load off a learner’s mind: Instructional design for complex learning. Educational psychologist, 38(1), 5-13.

Paas, F. G., & Van Merriënboer, J. J. (1994). Variability of worked examples and transfer of geometrical problem-solving skills: A cognitive-load approach. Journal of educational psychology, 86(1), 122.

Sweller, J., Van Merrienboer, J. J., & Paas, F. G. (1998). Cognitive architecture and instructional design. Educational psychology review, 10(3), 251-296.

Kalyuga and the Expertise Reversal Effect

Kalyuga, S., Chandler, P., Tuovinen, J., & Sweller, J. (2001). When problem solving is superior to studying worked examples. Journal of educational psychology, 93(3), 579.

Kalyuga, S., Ayres, P., Chandler, P., & Sweller, J. (2003). The expertise reversal effect. Educational psychologist, 38(1), 23-31.

Kalyuga, S. (2007). Expertise reversal effect and its implications for learner-tailored instruction. Educational Psychology Review, 19(4), 509-539.

Van Merrienboer, J. J., & Sweller, J. (2005). Cognitive load theory and complex learning: Recent developments and future directions. Educational psychology review, 17(2), 147-177.

Restricting the Boundaries of CLT

Sweller, J. (2010). Element interactivity and intrinsic, extraneous, and germane cognitive load. Educational psychology review, 22(2), 123-138.

Kirschner, P. A., Ayres, P., & Chandler, P. (2011). Contemporary cognitive load theory research: The good, the bad and the ugly. Computers in Human Behavior,27(1), 99-105.

Kalyuga, S. (2011). Cognitive load theory: How many types of load does it really need?. Educational Psychology Review, 23(1), 1-19.

Kalyuga, S., & Singh, A. M. (2015). Rethinking the Boundaries of Cognitive Load Theory in Complex Learning. Educational Psychology Review, 1-22.

Schwartz, D. L., Lindgren, R., & Lewis, S. (2009). Constructivism in an age of non-constructivist assessments.

How Much Complexity?

Borges, J. L. (2002). Of exactitude in science. QUADERNS-BARCELONA-COLLEGI D ARQUITECTES DE CATALUNYA-, 12-12.

Moreno, R. (2010). Cognitive load theory: More food for thought. Instructional Science, 38(2), 135-141.

Wiliam, D. (2007). Keeping learning on track. Second handbook of research on mathematics teaching and learning, 2, 1053-1098.


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